What were the forces of “god, gold, and glory” in the European colonization of the New World?
What happened to most of the wealth Spain received from the New World?
It was invested in armies to defend Catholicism
It went to China in trade
It went straight to the King of Spain
It went to the Pope in Rome
What was the document written by Martin Luther that helped launch the Protestant Reformation?
What were some of the similarities between all ancient religions in Egypt, Indus Valley, Mesopotamia, and China?
What was the Renaissance idea of “Humanism”?
The idea that people were designed to control the planet and all things must serve the interests of humanity and its progress.
The idea that every individual has value and dignity; people should primarily serve each other rather than god alone.
The idea that, through education and religion, a person could become perfect.
The idea that all people of a single culture should rule themselves without outside interference.
How did the Maya of the Yucatan Peninsula in modern Mexico resemble both the ancient Greeks and the ancient Chinese?
Their empire was brought down by ecological disasters in the same way that the ancient Greek and Chinese empires fell.
They had a ruling dynasty like the Chinese but were accomplished philosophers engaging in nearly scientific study like the Greeks.
They had a city-state government like the Greeks that ensured constant internal warfare like the Chinese.
They had a ruling dynasty system like the Chinese and a city-state government like the Greeks but, like both, they had a single cultural identity.
How did the Roman Empire try to ensure that its population remained peaceful and did not revolt?
What was the difference between the Muslim and the Mongol contribution to the Renaissance?
The Muslims brought forth new information and discoveries; the Mongols made existing information from other cultures available to a wider world.
The Muslims worked with scholars from all over the conquered lands; the Mongols caused scholars to flee.
The Muslims created several new branches of knowledge; the Mongols were only concerned with warfare
The Muslims were only influenced by the Greeks and Romans; the Mongols were only influenced by India and China.
What made the Gupta Empire in India pioneers of modern business?
Contact with Rome and China encouraged the Gupta Empire to build the “silk road” so it could tax goods moving from east to west and vice versa.
The Hindu and Buddhist religions placed a heavy emphasis on trade and wealth
They created the best number systems to handle large amounts; were located between major trading powers; invented interest bearing banking systems; and had trade guilds for quality control of products and trade regulations.
The Gupta Empire was the first to create a national bank with a unified currency to ensure that all trade would come through India and be converted into coins recognized in both Rome and China
What are some things that eastern religions (Hinduism, Buddhism, and Daoism) and philosophies (Confucianism) have in common?
We have called Western cultures “Individualistic.” What does this mean?
A culture that is isolated from the outside world and attacks other cultures to make the nation more secure.
A culture that stresses the good of the individual over those of a group; personal power and society are split.
A culture that deemphasizes family, religion, or political rule; each person must fend for themselves in their own way.
A culture that is concerned with exploiting the resources of the world and other, rival, societies.
What was the “Neolithic Revolution”?
The process of people shifting from nomadic hunter/gatherer societies into fixed communities based on farming and raising livestock.
The process of people moving from the use of flint tools to the creation of iron and bronze for tools
The process of humans slowly making the Neanderthal extinct as a way to remove competition for food and places to live.
The process of humans beginning to move from only living on the land to the construction of boats to use for fishing and to settle remote islands.
What were some of the effects of the European arrival and colonization of the New World on native peoples in Africa and the Americas?
Why could European nations able to colonize the New World in the 1500s onward but could not support colonies founded in the 1000s by Vikings?
The Native Americans were much stronger in the 1000s and able to better defend themselves than they were by 1500.
The Vikings had no economic or political reasons to invest as much in their colonies as Europeans did by 1500.
By the 1500s, Europeans had advanced navigation and shipbuilding techniques that had not been discovered by the Vikings
The Vikings did not take slaves in the 1000s, as the later European nations did, and slavery was necessary for successful colonies.
Why was the Protestant Reformation successful during the 1500s and onward when other movements earlier were not?
The printing press allowed for ideas to get to large numbers of increasingly literate people
The Catholic Pope had the military strength to always put down rebellions before 1500, when military power was lost.
The corruption of the Catholic Church had gotten even worse and the people were more ready for change in the 1500s than at any other time.
Many Catholics had left for the New World making the church too weak in Europe to effectively fight separatist faiths.
Why do we consider Sub-Saharan Africa as a crossroads of cultures?
How did Islam contribute to the rise of the Renaissance in Europe?
By preserving and expanding upon ancient knowledge, as well as knowledge from other cultures, and passing those down to Europe through contract, trade, and warfare.
By inventing new technologies and philosophies that were picked up by Europeans to make their political and economic power even greater.
By using political models of ancient Greece and Rome to demonstrate effective government to corrupt European churches and kingdoms
By using economic power to ensure that Europe traded exclusively with Islamic controlled areas which introduced new products and services to Europe.
What was unique about African societies before the coming of Islam and Christianity?
They never really reached a level of Nation-States and only stopped at the formation of a few large kingdoms.
They evolved from a mix of peoples from Asia and Europe rather than started as a collection of racially and culturally related peoples.
There was little social division between rulers and the ruled; women held a high degree of power over land and families.
There was an absence of warfare between tribes
What was so important about science (astronomy, physics, medicine) in the Renaissance?
A social and economic system where people on one level owed taxes and military service to those on higher levels up to the king at the top of the social pyramid.
A custom of settling disputes between land owners by a formalized duel where the winner received the lands of the loser
A method to ensure that each kingdom was safe from others through a system of treaties and alliances.
A practice of the Catholic Church where priests were made advisors to the king in times of religious strife.
We have called eastern cultures “Collectivist.” What does this mean?
A culture that is generally curious about the outside world and assimilates other cultures to make the nation more diverse.
A culture that holds all possessions in common so that no one, except for rulers, can be more wealthy than someone else.
A culture that stresses the good of a group over the good of an individual; personal power and society are linked.
A culture that is concerned with keeping all things in balance.
How did the Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation lead to the formation of Nation-States?
What were some of the ways that the ancient Greeks helped to create a Western “Individualistic” culture?
Through artwork that evolved from depicting perfect human forms to realistic individuals.
Through military formations that were dependent upon each individual doing their part to keep the formation from shattering
Through science and philosophy that searched for the nature of the world and the place of the individual within it.
What were “scribes” in the ancient empires of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus Valley, and China?
The people who made and traded paper and writing supplies in order to start some of the first trade routes.
The early religious leaders who kept the sacred books and carvings and interpreted them into religious ceremonies.
The elite members of the royal court who could read and write to record histories, trade, and laws.
The people in a royal court who ensured that all taxes were paid to the king and then made sure funds were available for building projects like pyramids.
What happened to China and India during the period of European expansion in the New World?
What was the “Triangular Trade”?
A system of moving raw materials to from a colony to become finished goods in the home nation, then moved in trade for supplies from another colony that could be shipped back to the first colony.
A system of moving trade goods from Europe, through the Americas, for goods from China and India
A system of moving goods from Europe, around Africa, to Asia in trade for other goods that moved back to Europe overland
A system of trading guns for slaves from Africa, then selling the slaves in the Caribbean to middle-men who sold them again on the mainland of North or South America.
What is a “Nation-State”?
A large kingdom that controlled many nations through treaties
A large kingdom that controlled many cultures inside one political identity
A political entity that contains a single cultural outlook within its borders.
A political entity that maintain colonies in the New World
What were some ways that Islam and Christianity were alike and some ways they were different?
Why did the Renaissance produce such beautiful artwork?
The Catholic Church went on a massive building and beautification program that hired the best and brightest artists of Europe to create art to adorn places of worship.
European artists, especially in Italy, come into close contact with Muslim traders who provided the basis, forms, and style, of Renaissance artwork.
Better painting and sculpting techniques had been invented that ensured Renaissance art survived to the present time.
The rise of banking led to paid artists who could sculpt or paint using themes that combined Humanism with Greek and Roman forms.
How did the near constant state of warfare of the Aztec Empire influence how it treated women?
Women become necessary for the army as men were killed in large numbers. This led to many rights and privileges for women.
It firmly relegated women to the home, child rearing, and having little to no rights over land or property.
Women were given rights only over trade skills so that they could make or repair weapons and armor.
It ensured that most women were widows with even less social power or m
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